what is Raynaud’s syndrome, disease and phenomenon
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In 1862 , Maurice Raynaud described episodic digital ischemia provoked by cold and emotion and this phenomenon has since been called Raynaud’s syndrome . Its defined as episodic pathologic attacks of white, blue and red fingers produced by cold provocation or emotional stress or both. A higher frequency of vasospastic symptoms in other organs, such as migraine and variant angina indicates that the syndrome has a more general manifestation.
The patients are usually divided onto two groups, dependent on the etiology . the most common form of the disorder is primary Raynaud’s phenomenon ( Raynaud’s disease ). This form is called primary because no underlying disease has been found and etiology is ,so far , unknown . the other form is secondary Raynaud’s phenomenon , in which the etiology and underlying disease in most case are thought to be known . today we know that a large number of different causes can produce the phenomenon .
The triphasic response with characteristic color changes of raynaud’s on exposure to cold , the hand’s become immediately white and then blue , on warming the hands ,they become intensely red and painful .
When conducting your examination , remember the difference between Raynaud’s disease and Raynaud’s phenomenon .
|Variants||Raynaud’s disease||Raynaud’s phenomenon|
|Age||Usually < 40 years||Usually > 40 years|
|Associated conditions||None||Many systemic disease|
|Symmetrical involvement||Yes||No ( can Involve one hand)|
|Nail fold capillaries||Normal||Abnormal|
|Tissue necrosis or gangrene||Never occurs||Can occur|
|Serologic findings ( antinuclear autoantibody ( ANA) )||Negative||Positive|
Causes of Raynaud’s phenomenon.
|Primary Raynaud’s phenomenon (also known as Raynaud’s disease or idiopathic episodic vasospasm)|
|Secondary Raynaud’s phenomenon|
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