Classification of cardiogenic shock according to Inotropic/vasopressor and mechanical circulatory support . ( What are Pre-Shock, Mild-shock, profound and severe refractory cardiogenic shock ?)
2013 and 2014 review of evidence for possible beneficial effects of diuretics and dopamine in patients with decompensated heart failure(HF) and acute kidney injury ( AKI)
Loop diuretics (furosemide, bumetanide, torsemide, ethacrynic acid) have long been used to “convert” oliguric to nonoliguric AKI. However, it is most likely that oliguric patients who respond to diuretics have a lesser renal injury than those who do not, with an intrinsically more favorable outcome. Moreover there is evidence that “forced” diuresis may exacerbate hypovolemia and renal injury. Once dialysis is required, high dose furosemide does not alter the natural history of AKI.
Dopaminergic agents (dopamine, fenoldopam) potentially confer renal protection by increasing renal blood flow (RBF), diuresis and saliuresis. By activating cyclic AMP they “turn off” the energy-dependent tubular sodium pump and thereby decrease tubular oxygen consumption; increased intratubular urine flow protects against tubular obstruction.In part this may be because there is very wide variability in dopamine pharmacokinetics, i.e. some patients given low dose dopamine may achieve high plasma levels, i.e. in the beta- or alpha-adrenergic range.
The Heart Failure clinical Research Network , funded by the National Heart,Lung and blood Institute in the USA , addressed the possibility that low dose dopamine or low- dose nesiritide could safely augment the diuresis induced by loop diuretics in patients with decompensated HF. The trial , in 360 patients , showed no evidence that diuresis or decongestion was enhanced by such combined therapy or that renal function was better preserved .
The is that we should continue what we are doing maintain aggressive approach to diuretic therapy , and perhaps concern ourselves less when renal function transiently worsen .
Despite more than thirty years of use as a renal vasodilator , low dose dopamine (2Mic/kg/m) has shown no evidence of benefit in patients with acute oliguric renal failure on the basis of its action on dopaminergic renal receptors . In fact , low -dose dopamine can have deleterious effects on hemodynamics ( decreased splanchnic blood flow ) immune function ( inhibition of T-cell lymphocyte function ) and endocrine function ( inhibition of thyroid _stimulating hormone release from the pituitary ) .
For more information read here ;>>>
Every 10% increase in hypertension treatment would lead to an additional 14,000 deaths annually prevented
Every 10% increase in treatment of elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol or aspirin prophylaxis would lead to 8000 deaths prevented in those aged <80 years, per year. Overall, the models suggest that optimal use of all of these interventions could prevent 50,000-100,000 deaths per year in those aged <80 years and 25,000-40,000 deaths per year in those aged <65 years.
What is Coronary Artery CTO ? Its pathological Types I and II ?Progression of CTO : Extending and organizing Thrombus and its insights !
Angiography shows only the silhouette of contrast media flowing through a lumen. IVUS shows us much more diagnostic information:
•Measurable extent of stent apposition and expansion.
•Measurable size and shape of lumen, plaque, intima and media.
•Shape and composition of intima, media and adventitia.
•Differentiation among fibrous, fibro-fatty and calcified plaque.
•Positive identification of blood.